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古代印度佛教的等级是如何划分的?

作者: 来源: 日期:2020-4-19 7:19:00 人气:0

公元前1500多年,当雅利安人从印度流域向恒河流域发展,主要生产方式从畜牧业生产转向农业生产。由于气候条件优越,加上人们学会了种植产量比较高的水稻,再加上铜钟铁器的使用生产力得到很大的提高。社会结构进入奴隶制社会。

Over 1500 BC, when the Aryans developed from the Indus Valley to the Ganges Valley, the main mode of production changed from animal husbandry to agricultural production. Because of the superior climate conditions, people have learned to plant rice with high yield, and the productivity of copper bell and iron ware has been greatly improved. Social structure entered slavery society.

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当时的社会人群被分成四个等级:①婆罗门(宗教祭司,掌握掌握和教育权,宗教经典和文化知识),②刹帝利(武士阶层,后来还包括国王和军事贵族,他们掌握军事和行政权。)、③吠舍(农民、手工业者,后来还包括从中分化出工商业主、高利贷商人。)、④首陀罗(由非雅利安的土著部落平民组成,地位低下)。另外还有没有任何社会地位的奴隶,无种姓者,被称为“贱民”, “不可触者”(untouchable)。

At that time, the social groups were divided into four levels: Brahman (religious priest, master and education right, religious classics and cultural knowledge), and chadili (warrior class, later including the king and military aristocracy, they master military and administrative power) (3) Yashe (farmers, handicraftsmen, and later industrial and commercial owners, usurer) (4) sudra (composed of civilians from non Aryan indigenous tribes, with low status). In addition, there are slaves without any social status, caste free people, who are called "untouchable" and "untouchable".

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当时印度社会上的主要宗教是婆罗门教,婆罗门教是一种多神教,崇拜自然精灵和祖先神,信奉天神、雷神、司法神、日神、火神、风神、雨神等多神。婆罗门教是维护当时的奴隶社会的一门宗教。它宣扬业报轮回的观点,认为人在今生的行为(业)的善恶,将带来来生轮回不同的因果报应;如果不相信婆罗门教香炉的吠陀经典、或有违犯种姓规定的行为,或有杀生行为等等,死后将轮回转生为下等种姓贱民或为牲畜,而如果学习吠陀经典,苦行,行善,死后可转生为上等种姓,以至成为天神,与大梵合一。婆罗门教宣传婆罗门种姓至上,说梵天用口造婆罗门,用手造刹帝利,用双腿造吠舍,用双脚造首陀罗,并为他们规定了社会职业,永世不可改变。婆罗门教强调向天神祭祀献供,每年要举行多次祭祀仪式,包括马祭、祖先祭、天神祭、梵祭、精灵祭种种献祭。献祭时要屠宰大量牲畜,信徒们耗费大量财物,甚至土地献祭给神——实际归婆罗门。

At that time, the main religion in Indian society was Brahmanism. Brahmanism was a kind of polytheism, which worshipped the natural spirits and ancestors, and believed in the gods of heaven, thunder, justice, sun, fire, wind, rain, etc. Brahmanism was a religion that maintained the slave society at that time. It publicizes the view of karma reincarnation, and holds that the good and evil of human behavior (karma) in this life will bring different karma in the next life; if one does not believe the Vedic scriptures of Brahmanic incense burner, or violates the caste rules, or kills animals, etc., he will reincarnate into inferior caste pariah or livestock after death, and if one learns Vedic scriptures, works hard, does good, and dies Later, he can be reincarnated into a superior caste, so that he can become a God and integrate with the great Brahma. Brahmanism publicized the supremacy of Brahmanism caste, saying that Brahman made Brahmani by mouth, Sakyamuni by hand, barking house by legs, and sudra by feet, which stipulated social occupation for them and could never be changed. Brahmanism emphasizes offering sacrifices to the gods and holds many sacrificial ceremonies every year, including horse sacrifice, ancestor sacrifice, God sacrifice, Brahman sacrifice and spirit sacrifice. When sacrificing, a large number of livestock are slaughtered, and believers spend a lot of money and money, even land is sacrificed to God, which actually belongs to Brahman.

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Hebei Tangxian HSBC handicraft factory manufacturing Co., Ltd. is engaged in square sculpture, city sculpture, copper Buddha statue, copper bell, copper tripod, copper relief, bronze ware, copper censer and other cast iron products. The products include: large Buddha statue, copper bell, censer, large city sculpture, East and West figure sculpture, animal sculpture and various red, yellow and bronze handicraft casting for temples.


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